UMSS22 Social Sciences

UMSS22 Presentations by Category

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Social Sciences and Humanities

 

Submission Type: Virtual Presentation

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Emily Scarpulla

Cynthia Erdley

Graduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: Cynthia Erdley

Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has created many mental health difficulties for individuals around the world, with adolescents being particularly vulnerable. A primary factor influencing mental health outcomes is the ability to maintain interpersonal connectivity, which has been challenged by the pandemic and is likely related to the recent surge of internalizing disorders. Even those seeking to maintain social connections through technology use have shown increased vulnerability to depression, especially when they have other risk factors. This indicates that connection through technology may not be sufficient and may actually increase risk for depression. The present study examined whether COVID-19-related stress, as well as gender, strengthen the association between social media use and depressive symptoms.
Participants were 171 undergraduate students who completed a series of self-report measures to determine experience with COVID-19-related stressors, social media use operationalized as time spent on phone applications considered Social by iPhones Screen Time application, and depressive symptoms. Results showed that exposure to COVID-19-related stressors moderated the relationship between social media use and depressive symptoms, such that increased exposure to COVID-19-related stressors strengthened the relationship between increased time on social media and higher rates of depressive symptoms. Additionally, gender moderated the social media use/depressive symptom relationship, with identifying as female strengthening this association. These findings suggest that those experiencing higher levels of COVID-19-related stressors, as well as females, are at greater risk for depressive symptoms the more frequently they use social media.

 

Submission Type: Poster

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Alexandra Peary

Kelley Strout

Kathryn Robinson

Mimi Killinger

Jennifer McNulty

Jen Bonnet

Undergraduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: Kelley Strout

Abstract: Childhood obesity is a serious public health issue in the United States. Many children fail to meet the recommended daily physical activity of 60 minutes. Poor metabolic health at a young age puts children and adolescents at a significantly higher risk of developing chronic health issues in adulthood. With the potential to further exacerbate the obesity epidemic, the onset of the Covid-19 pandemic challenged students abilities to participate in structured physical activity, such as recess and physical education, due to school closures, strict social distancing guidelines, and hybrid or remote models of learning. This lack of structure and opportunities for physical activity warrants further investigation into how the Covid-19 pandemic has impacted school-aged children. The purpose of this qualitative secondary analysis was to determine how the pandemic shaped physical activity implementation strategies. The sample included 360 schools who participated in the Lets Go! Program, a nationally recognized obesity prevention program serving Maine and Mount Washington Valley, New Hampshire. Results indicate that staff demonstrated their commitment to students welfare and education during the 2020-2021 school year by not only attempting to maintain normalcy under strict Covid-19 guidelines, but also creating innovative opportunities for students to participate in physical activity and demonstrating optimism in the face of adversity. These findings indicate that physical activity strategies employed by schools during the Covid-19 pandemic should be capitalized on in future physical activity strategy plans and provide insight into student and staff reflection on the importance of health and wellbeing during this unprecedented time.

 

Submission Type: Poster

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Margaret Campbell

Kara Peruccio

Undergraduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: Kara Peruccio

Abstract: During the early 20th century, Palestinian urban and rural life changed in the wake of defensive developmentalism and imperialism. World War I accelerated this process with foreign intervention and changing geographical borders. Taking a specific look into the Sykes-Picot Agreement (1916), the Balfour Declaration (1917), and British military involvement in the region will show the event from both a British and a Palestinian lens which is crucial to the idea and the reality of what Palestine was. Analyzing several primary and secondary sources looking at and from the period of 1914-1918 that include diplomatic documents and a diary from an Ottoman Palestinian soldier, provide important insights into Zionist hopes, what it was like in Palestine, and direct British involvement. The war is unpacked to understand the changing control of Palestine and the new vision and reality that were a result of World War I. This explores the implications of the Sykes-Picot Agreement, the Balfour Declaration, how the homefront suffered and persevered during war, the scope of British influence in the region, and investigates understanding the importance of Palestine for Western powers such as Great Britain and the United States. The idea and reality of Palestine had strategic importance for those outside of the land. As a result of these findings, the Middle East, especially Palestine, should not be considered part of the periphery of war. There were large ramifications for countries besides the Entente. Foreign intervention created a new definition of Palestine, which altered the world view of Palestine and the view for those on the homefront.

 

Submission Type: Poster

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Willow Wind

Liliana Herakova

Undergraduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: Liliana Herakova

Abstract: Through a mixed methods design, this study examined the communication goals and practices of transgender, non-binary, and otherwise gender non-conforming (TGNC) individuals and the connections between such practices and mental health. The study was informed by co-cultural theory which proposes that members of marginalized groups (co-cultures) – such as TGNC individuals – engage in communication with the dominant group with specific preferred approaches and outcomes in mind (Orbe, 1997). An online survey was conducted to study the relationships between communication experiences, community connectivity, gender affirmation, and feelings of depression and anxiety. Identifying oneself as non-normative was linked to self-reported negative mental health outcomes. Additionally, 11 TGNC identifying individuals were interviewed about their gender experiences within a dominant gender-binary system. Findings suggested that TGNC individuals are hyper-aware of communication contexts and use communication defensively in order to avoid/minimize othering. While an overall aspiration for a dominant culture that would accommodate to non-binary gender experiences and identities was expressed, a more pressing desire to set gender aside and foster feelings of normalcy was observed through enacted TGNC assimilation. These results have implications for building TGNC-affirming environments through integration of gender queer recognition in syllabi statements and expansion of gender inclusive regular activity programming (e.g., student clubs) that prioritizes positive community building over discussions of identity in which the negotiation of gender can become burdensome.

 

Submission Type: Poster

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Alyson Thompson

Emily Blackwell

Emma Hood

Undergraduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: Sandra L. Caron

Abstract: Our research team was interested in examining how diversity is portrayed in children’s books. Books are one of the tools used to develop childrens language. They are also the way children come to understand themselves and the world around them. We chose to examine the top books identified by Publishers Weekly for children ages 5-10 years old across a 20-year period. We were interested in examining the range of diversity in the content of those childrens books identified each year as The Best and whether this diversity changed across time.
Method: This study involved a content analysis of early childhood books listed by Publishers Weekly as the Best Books of 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2020. Areas of diversity included race/ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, family forms, disability, and religion. We specifically read the children’s books with these key aspects of diversity in mind. We read and coded the content of a total of 71 books. We identified key themes in the top books for each year as well as examined these themes across the years.
Findings: We found that in almost every category of diversity, with the exceptions of sexual orientation and family forms, there was a steady increase in diversity presented in the top childrens books from 2000 through 2020. The areas of increased diversity included race/ethnicity, gender, disability, and religion. Implications will be discussed for authors and parents.

 

Submission Type: Poster

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Kaitlyn Ridley

Au-Lionne Agatako

Tamra Benson

Benjamin Cotton

Collin Rhoades-Doyle

Robert Glover

Undergraduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: Robert Glover

Abstract: Research suggests that undergraduate students are a relatively vulnerable economic population within the campus workforce, generally receiving lower wages, having fewer formal protections, and less of a formal institutional voice. Thus, it is critically important to be intentional in seeking their perspectives in building equitable, inclusive workplaces. This study aims to better understand the experiences of undergraduate student-employees working at the 做厙腦瞳app. Specifically, we want to examine a) the socio-demographic factors that drive undergraduates to work while pursuing higher education, b) UMaine student employees self-reported attitudes towards current University working conditions (hours, wages, and job satisfaction) and c) the impacts of student employment on their well-being and academic performance.
To address these topics, our research team is deploying an online survey to students of the 做厙腦瞳app who are employed both on- and off-campus, through a partnership with the Office of Student Employment. We will also be supplementing our survey data by interviewing several students recruited from the survey sample. Our research will provide baseline data regarding UMaine students attitudes towards current university working conditions and factors that drive students to work while attending university, as well as how student employment impacts their lives and academic performance. These data will enrich our understanding of working conditions at the 做厙腦瞳app that may also be present in similar state schools. This study could also guide subsequent, more focused steps to address student employment concerns and providing additional resources and support for employed undergraduate students.

 

Submission Type: Poster

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Mikayla True

Adam Dawe

Caroline Kourafas

Undergraduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: Sandra L. Caron

Abstract: Our research involved a content analysis of the top apps marketed to infants to 2 year olds. We were particularly interested in looking at the purpose of the app and gender messages to understand the early messaging young children are receiving from such apps.
Method: The content analysis involved selecting the top 30 free apps for infants to 2 years old. Each research team member downloaded and noted the content of each app. Initial coding was based on purpose (educational vs entertainment), and gender messaging, based on such things as colors used, characters, activity, and voices. These individual codes were compared, differences discussed, and final coding of apps in terms of purpose (educational vs entertainment) and gender messaging (gendered or gender neutral) was determined.
Findings: The majority of the apps were described by their developer as educational. However, this self-proclaimed purpose was not supported when our research team coded the 30 apps. While most were coded as Educational, they were not appropriate for children under 2 in terms of teaching complex topics like spelling, adding, and word identification. Only 5 were coded as Entertainment. Of the top 30 apps for infants to 2 year olds, we determined half (50%; n=15) were Gendered apps (reinforcing traditional stereotypes of boys and girls) and the other half (50%; n=15) were Gender Neutral apps. The findings offer important implications for parents.

 

Submission Type: Poster

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Lindsey Lagerstrom

Jennifer Thompson

Taylor McMillan

Fayeza Ahmed

Graduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: Fayeza Ahmed

Abstract: Affect and sleep have shown to individually impact cognitive performance across the lifespan1,2; additionally, recent research has demonstrated that these two variables may interact with each other3,4. Most research on these topics focus on clinical samples; less is known about healthy, cognitively-unimpaired adults. The purpose of this study is to better understand the relationship between affect (both positive and negative) and sleep quality, and how these two variables interplay in relation to cognitive performance within a young adult, healthy, cognitively un-impaired sample. This study aims to examine both affect and sleep quality in young adults, and their relation to cognitive performance. College-aged participants (N = 113) were recruited from the Middle Age: Cognition, Activity, and Health study database, which included measures of cognition, motor/sensory activities and cardiovascular health. Additionally, affect and sleep quality were both assessed through self-report questionnaires (the Positive and Negative Affect Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, respectively). Analysis comparing varying levels of affect and sleep quality to cognition is in progress. This study may inform intervention targets to help students better succeed within an academically driven and cognitively demanding environment.

Acknowledgements: This project is part of a larger study of the faculty mentor.

 

Submission Type: Poster

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Darby Casey

Sally B. Barker

Jordan P. LaBouff

Undergraduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: Jordan P. LaBouff

Abstract: Science and religion sometimes appear to clash: for example, some religious organizations reject COVID-19 restrictions on religious grounds. However, many people, like millions of religious scientists, see science and religion as perfectly compatible. The purpose of this study is to examine how people who identify as religious and people who identify as scientists think about science and religion as compatible or in conflict. We hypothesized and found that UMaine students higher in religious commitment saw science and religion as more compatible, whereas people higher in commitment to science saw science and religion as more in conflict. We also investigated differences between Honors and NonHonors students, finding that students in the UMaine Honors program were more likely to both have a stronger science identity and see science and religion as more in conflict, as compared to the non-honors group, which saw them as more compatible.

 

Submission Type: Poster

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Julia Van Steenberghe

Graduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: Sandra L. Caron

Abstract: The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore beauty pageant contestants thoughts on feminism. A total of 11 of the 51 state titleholders who had competed in the 2020 Miss USA Competition were interviewed. The objective of the study was to gain an understanding of how women who compete in beauty pageants view their participation in light of feminism. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted. The research questions focused on the meaning for participants, pageantry support for feminist ideals, self-identification as a feminist, and response to feminist critics. Each interview was transcribed and coded for major themes. The resulting themes will be presented, along with a discussion of implications and suggestions for future research.

 

Submission Type: Poster

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Adele Weaver

Mollie Ruben

Graduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: Mollie Ruben

Abstract: How might the typical white perceiver behave while interviewing with a Black manager who puts her hands on her hips when she speaks? Would they act uncomfortable and anxious, leaning away from her? Would they engage with her and smile more? Lastly, would they react differently if the manager was a white man or a Black man? Even though it is known that Black people in expansive positions are perceived more negatively than white people in expansive positions, there has yet to be an observation of white peoples nonverbal behavior in interactions with Black and white individuals in different body positions (Karmali, 2019). White undergraduates from the 做厙腦瞳app completed a recorded Zoom mock interview with a supposed interviewer (target) whose Zoom photograph differed by race, gender, and body positioning (expansive/restrictive). A female interviewers voice was pre-recorded and tuned down several decibels for the male condition. Participants’ impressions of the interviewer and attitudes toward race via the Modern Racism Scale (McConahay, 1986) were collected, and we coded participants nonverbal immediacy behavior during the interview. We hypothesized that participants would rate Black targets similarly to white targets on various impressions (i.e. warmth and likeability), however, we posited that less nonverbal immediacy would be displayed with Black compared to white targets (i.e. less eye contact, body squared away), especially when targets were in an expansive position. This research will expand our understanding of how to effectively tailor DEI initiatives that foster positive attitudes toward Black people in power.

 

Submission Type: Poster

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

James Sapiel

Sarah Lungarini

Olivia Perfito

Undergraduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: Sandra L. Caron

Abstract: Many people learn about and form opinions about IPV from the media, such as newspaper articles, evening news reports, and television dramas. Our research team sought to answer the following question: How do Maine newspapers discuss intimate partner violence resulting in homicide?
Method: Our content analysis involved newspaper articles on IPV resulting in homicide
between the years 2000 to 2020. Articles were obtained from three major Maine newspapers: Bangor Daily News, Portland Press, and the Sun Journal. A total of 80 articles were found using a combination of the search terms intimate partner violence, domestic violence, murder, and homicide. The 80 articles were read and coded for common topics or themes that appeared in the content of the articles. The research team met to share their individual codes, which were compared, differences discussed, and final coding of themes was determined.
Findings: Our content analysis revealed that most news reports provide factual coverage of the occurrence: Names, ages, manner of murder, and how law enforcement was notified. Based on the themes emerging from these newspaper articles, information is provided on the background of the relationship, and have a humanizing angle to the victim. We found that only when it was a murder-suicide did the stories of their relationship become a greater focus of the article (as compared to articles involving IPV homicide). Details of their relationship was discussed, and in some cases a photo was included of the victim or couple. Implications will be
discussed.

 

Submission Type: Virtual Presentation

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Angelica Boeve

Rebecca MacAulay

Graduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: Rebecca MacAulay

Abstract: Sleep disturbances and physical inactivity are widespread public health concerns that account for extensive health care costs and premature mortality rates each year. Increasing evidence demonstrates dynamic relationships between sleep and physical activity in older adults, reflective of circadian rhythms, which have the potential to negatively influence health and well-being when they are disrupted. However, prior research has primarily focused on the role physical activity has on sleep health rather than the reverse. The present study aimed to improve understanding of which sleep characteristics as well as how sleep characteristics affect daytime physical activity as people age. Using previously collected data from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study, a structural equation model assessed direct and indirect relationships between actigraphy-assessed sleep characteristics with total physical activity levels in a sample of 261 middle-to-older-aged adults (55+ years old). Analyses revealed that greater consistency in sleep duration across seven days associated with higher levels of total physical activity after accounting for the negative effects of sleep efficiency. These findings suggest that the consistency of sleep duration across each night may be an important clinical recommendation to provide to older individuals, in addition to that of obtaining an optimal amount of sleep duration within each night. These results also call into question the underlying construct of sleep efficiency in this type of research. This knowledge may ultimately help clinicians provide more specific recommendations to clients about sleep behaviors needed to optimize physical activity levels in middle-to-older age.

 

Submission Type: Virtual Presentation

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Aaron Dustin

Jordan LaBouff

Undergraduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: Jordan LaBouff

Abstract: Although religious teachings typically recommend prosocial behavior, religiosity is reliably linked to prejudice. This paradoxical relationship raises the question: what is it about religion that might lead to prejudice despite religions apparent drive for prosociality? The answer may lie with religious fundamentalism, a particularly rigid way of holding ones religious beliefs as the single deepest and most certain source of truth. We propose that religious fundamentalism mediates the relationship between religiosity and prejudice. We also seek to explore the influence of three facets of inflexible thinking (belief rigidity, dualism, and inviolacy) on the relationship between religious fundamentalism and prejudice.
Were looking specifically at prejudice against Muslims in a Christian sample for several reasons: 1) Christians see Muslims as a value-violating outgroup and previous research has linked Christian religious fundamentalism to anti-Muslim prejudice, 2) prejudice against Muslims in the U.S. is fairly common, and 3) anti-Muslim prejudice in the U.S. is not as stigmatized as many other forms of prejudice, making it easier to measure directly.
To test this mediation, we used an online survey of an all-Christian sample (n=227) collected through UMaine. Participants completed multiple measures of religiosity, prejudice against Muslims, and religious fundamentalism, as well as measures of belief rigidity, dualism, and inviolacy. Mediation analyses show that religiosity is linked to prejudice only through the mechanism of religious fundamentalism, and correlational results show that inviolacy may be a nonreligious component of religious fundamentalism that is linked to prejudice.

 

Submission Type: Poster

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Amy Halpin

Savannah Michaud

Lauren Moore

Rebecca MacAulay

Graduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: Rebecca MacAulay

Abstract: When deciding between now and later, the tendency to devalue later outcomes is known as temporal discounting. The degree of devaluing is known as ones discounting rate. Steeper temporal discounting rates indicate preferences for immediate gains and delayed losses, reflecting a desire for instant gratification and greater loss aversion, respectfully. Considering that decrements in decision-making abilities may precipitate cognitive dysfunction and decline, a better understanding of decision-making preferences among older adults represents an important endeavor. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate whether differences among temporal discounting rates for gains and losses exist when outcomes are monetary or interpersonal in nature. Sixty-four community-dwelling older adults (75% female, Mage=72) completed a hypothetical discounting task in which they chose between smaller immediate outcomes and larger delayed outcomes presented at various delay periods of one week, one month, six months, and one year. An iterative algorithm determined the indifference point for each delay period. Indifference points were fit to hyperbolic models using nonlinear regressions to determine discounting rates within each condition. Non-parametric Wilcoxon Signed-Rank tests compared discounting rates. Older adults more steeply discounted monetary gains as compared to monetary losses (Z=-4.24, p<.001), as well as for social gains compared to social losses (Z=-2.17, p=.007). They also discounted social gains more steeply than monetary gains (Z=-2.81, p=.001), and social losses more steeply than monetary losses (Z=-3.19, p=.001). These results suggest older adults displayed a greater desire for instant gratification of rewards, particularly social rewards, yet also displayed lower loss aversion, particularly for monetary losses.

 

Submission Type: Poster

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Samantha Sudol

Michael Robbins

Undergraduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: Michael Robbins

Abstract: In this study, relationships among sleep disturbance, positive and negative emotion, and cognitive performance are examined using data from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS) archive. The MSLS is a 35 year study of aging and cardiovascular disease risk factors for lowered cognitive functioning. Cross sectional data are available for up to 1080 participants at Wave 6 of the MSLS, the first wave including two measures of sleep quality, the Sleep Disturbance Scale and Sleep Apnea scale. Indices of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and positive emotion include the Zung Depression Scale, the CES-D Depression Scale, trait anxiety and trait curiosity from the Spielberger State-Trait Personality Inventory, the Cornell Medical Index, and the General Well-Being Adjustment Scale. The cognitive test battery includes a range of neuropsychological tests from versions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Wechsler Memory Scale, and Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery, among others (Elias et al., 2006). Demographic and lifestyle variables are used to characterize the sample and used as covariates. Initial correlation analyses indicate strong associations for 4-item sleep disturbance scale scores with the measures of symptoms of depression (rs greater than .40), trait anxiety (r = .31), and General Well-Being measures of positive emotion (r = -.38), control (r = -.34) and vitality (r = .55) but not with indices of cognitive performance (all p > .05). On the other hand, higher sleep apnea scores were associated with poorer performance across cognitive domains. Analysis of the sleep measures with mood state and cognitive performance continues.

 

Submission Type: Poster

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Katherine Follansbee

Kathleen Bell

Caroline Noblet

Graduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: Kathleen Bell

Abstract: Changing shorelines are impacting human and natural systems globally, changing how people live, work, and recreate in coastal areas. Climate change and increased storm events are intensifying shoreline changes and their effects. In response, coastal resource managers are developing a variety of solutions. Yet, many questions remain about these solutions in Maine and beyond.

My sustainability science research focuses on the management of shoreline change at Maine’s Popham Beach State Park. Popham Beach State Park is a popular recreation area for locals and visitors, hosting 162,518 visitors in 2020. Yet, erosion continues to threaten the park’s infrastructure and modify the beach. While coastal managers, including Maine’s Coastal Program, Geological Survey, and Bureau of Parks & Lands, recognize the importance of understanding public awareness of shoreline change and support for management actions, little is known about either.

My research addresses this information gap and uses survey data collected in 2016 and insights from behavioral economics to assess the relationships between beach users’ visitation patterns, awareness of shoreline change, and support for the state taking different actions. Results to date show that years of visitation are positively correlated with awareness of shoreline change, but seemingly uncorrelated with support for management approaches. Respondents were divided as to whether the state should address changing shorelines or let nature take its course, and responses varied greatly when asked which management solutions were highest priority.
Our findings offer insights to coastal managers in Maine and beyond as they engage with the public about coastal management solutions.

 

Submission Type: Poster

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Molly Glueck

Elizabeth Neiman

Undergraduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: Elizabeth Neiman

Abstract: This project advances research begun in a spring 2021 course on British Romanticism as viewed through the lens of 21st century Black Studies scholarship. The Romantic ideals of imaginative freedom and universality of vision sit uneasily with the reality of slavery in the British colonies. My focus is Black Annotation, a method forged by Christina Sharpe in her search to revise common representations (in media and history) of Black lives. I use this conceptual framework to consider how Romantic ideas about freedom and oppression operated in the late eighteenth-century, and how we understand these ideas today. Within my research, it has become clear that Romanticisms legacy is still largely concerned with key Romantic terms (imagination, reflection, and the sublime) as they are defined by white, male figureheads such as Edmund Burke and William Wordsworth. Despite the number of female authors writing about and re-imagining the meanings of these terms in the same period. With this in mind, I posit that framing readings of Romantic texts (canonical and noncanonical) through the study of authors like Sharpe and Saidiya Hartman opens up these traditionally Romantic terms and helps us reconsider notions of freedom for writers that might otherwise seem limited by social status. I also explore my own introduction to Romanticism as an undergraduate studentacknowledging the necessity of integrating contemporary Black authors into Romantic studies.

 

Submission Type: Poster

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Aran Wollard

Karyn Sporer

Undergraduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: Karyn Sporer

Abstract: The goal of this research is to understand how members of Maines harm reduction community perceive the effectiveness of criminal justice responses to substance use disorder (SUD). Data from 25 interviews with those in recovery from SUD, politicians, doctors, government officials and other individuals with some relation to SUD in Maine were analyzed using a modified version of grounded theory. The data analysis revealed a generally negative perception of police effectiveness. Participants acknowledged that despite some positive encounters or engagement with local law enforcement, policies in place and general attitude of policing drug use in Maine makes it difficult to have a positive interaction with the police as a person using drugs. This research concludes with recommendations for better addressing substance use disorder and Maine communities more broadly.

 

Submission Type: Poster

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Dominique DiSpirito

Robert Glover

Undergraduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: Robert Glover

Abstract: Landfilled organics waste both natural and financial resources by discarding usable materials that could bolster food security programs and composting efforts. According to the Drawdown Project, one-third of the food we produce in the United States goes to the landfill without ever reaching someones plate, contributing to leachate at disposal sites and accounting for more greenhouse gasses than the entire airline industry. As communities across the state struggle to support the 1 in 6 Mainers experiencing food insecurity with dwindling financial resources and limited personnel, food waste diversion provides a local solution that bolsters resilience at low cost. The absence of bold food waste diversion policy in Maine is not due to a lack of successful examples nearby, as Vermonts recent universal organics recycling policy has seen tremendous success both in diverting more than 53,000 tons of food waste per year and in yielding a 40% increase in food donations. However, Maine faces distinct logistical challenges that complicate efforts to scale up current local food waste diversion efforts such as regional population sparsity and staffing resource constraints. This thesis project examines how Vermonts Universal Recycling Policy could inspire a path forward to a food waste diversion policy that would work for Maine. The analysis draws upon professional interviews, surveys sent to municipalities, and organizational reports to examine the barriers and assets at play in Maines journey toward a bold food waste diversion policy, culminating in suggestions that will work for Mainers.

 

Submission Type: Poster

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Emma Williams

Tyler Capone-Zeman Dubois

Jennifer Crittenden

Undergraduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: Jennifer Crittenden

Abstract: This presentation will serve as a scoping review of burnout within the helping professions in America. Burnout is something that is faced by everyone in this country, but especially within the helping professions. Helping professions would include but are not limited to, healthcare workers, patient navigators, community health workers, social workers, community volunteers, and clinicians. Burnout can be defined, loosely, as the overworking of an individual to the point of exhaustion within that individual. Burnout can be exasperated by conditions both external and internal to the workplace such as high workloads, low pay, and the COVID-19 pandemic. Burnout can also be affected by personal challenges such as mental illness, relationship strife, and lack of time for self-care. This scoping review, conducted by undergraduate research fellows, is part of a larger project examining systemic barriers that Maine community health workers (CHWs) face when assisting communities. Taking part in this research process illuminated the literature regarding what burnout is and possible solutions for burnout and how those concepts apply to CHWs. This presentation will examine and present the various literature surrounding burnout. Burnout is a complex situation that can be slowed and stopped when the correct measures are implemented within the workplace. This presentation will discuss how the traditional 9-5, five-day work week can affect burnout. Scoping review findings were used to develop interview questions for the larger CHW project and community education materials.

 

  1. – Presentation withdrawn from judging

Submission Type: Poster

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Jennifer Jain

Jennifer Crittenden

Travis Bryant

David Wihry

Graduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: David Wihry

Abstract: In Maine, approximately 16,500 children are informally raised by family members other than their parents (kinship families) and there is a growing need to identify and improve support and services. The Kinship Navigator program through Adoptive and Foster Families of Maine connects kinship families to resources, such as legal services, public assistance, and support groups. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Navigator program. The 做厙腦瞳app Center on Aging surveyed enrolled kinship families (N=22), at baseline and 90 days after their intake into the Kinship Navigator program. The main outcome of the study was family access to resources as measured by a modified twenty-three item version of the Family Resource Scale utilizing a 5 point likert scale. Paired Samples T-Tests compared scores on the Family Resource Scale at 90 days post-intake. Statistically significant differences in mean resource needs were found on nine items, indicating improvements in family resources with regard to home heating (mean increase of .83, t(11) = -2.8, p<.05), adequate clothing (mean increase of 1.17, t(11) = -3.39, p<.00), opportunities for rest (mean increase of 1.0, t(11) = -2.71, p<.05), and family medical care (mean increase of 1.08, t(11) = -3.03, p<.05). Furthermore, data will be presented on participant satisfaction with the program and changes in caregiver well-being. Limitations include small sample size and lack of comparison group. Implications for service provision to kinship caregivers will be discussed.

 

Submission Type: Poster

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Michael Delorge

Bonnie Snyder

Jacob Chaplin

Bryce Andrews

Sam Ransley

Robert Glover

Undergraduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: Robert Glover

Abstract: In 2021 alone, Maine saw a 30% annual increase in the number of overdose deaths (636) due to prescription and illicit drugs. This alarming trend raises significant questions about the appropriate policy response to quell the growing crisis that many experts consider an epidemic. However, individuals afflicted with substance use disorder (SUD) and those in active substance use recovery are often overlooked in the policy process. To fill the gaps in existing research, this study asks what recovery outcomes and experiences look like in Maine. Further, it evaluates public attitudes towards policy solutions to the Maine addiction crisis and gives a voice to the underrepresented community of recovery. What are the impacts of addiction and recovery experiences on an individuals life? How do addiction and recovery experiences shape attitudes on substance use policy? This studys 75-question survey has been designed through the Qualtrics platform and distributed through a partnership with the Maine Recovery Advocacy Project (ME-RAP) to recovery centers and stakeholder advocacy organizations around the state. The results will both inform Maine substance use policy while providing data-rich policy insights for those attempting to understand the life experiences of those in active addiction and recovery nationally.

 

Submission Type: Virtual Presentation

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Wendy Crosier

Sharon Klein

Undergraduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: Sharon Klein

Abstract: A recent study for the Senator George J. Mitchell Center for Sustainability Solutions revealed a strong need for a community energy learning network in Maine that could expand through the Northeast. Such a network would provide a platform for communities in Maine and beyond to connect with and learn from each other about community energy action that involves deployment of new renewable energy installations (with an initial focus on solar energy) and energy efficiency. It would also streamline communications about and build capacity to respond to funding and technical assistance program announcements from federal government agencies. With support from a CUGR research grant I have been working with Dr. Sharon Klein, Associate Professor of Economics at UMaine, to develop capacity for this type of network, including assembling key stakeholders and developing a grant application. My presentation to the UM Student Symposium will provide an overview of the prior work leading up to this project, discuss similar networks operating in neighboring states and how Maine can learn from them, and provide an update on our efforts to secure funding to create such a network in Maine. By leveraging federal and state funds, we hope to make the Local Energy Action Network (LEAN) a reality for Maine, with a vision to scale-up to a regional, and maybe even national effort in the future.

 

Submission Type: Poster

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Rebecca Stanley

John Daigle

Graduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: John Daigle

Abstract: Acadia National Park (ANP), located in coastal Maine, experiences high visitation during the busy summer months and is one of the top ten visited parks in the United States. To address the issues of overcrowding, a timed-entry reservation system has been implemented for Cadillac Mountain (CM) May to October 2021. The current increase in automobile use on CM has created safety concerns and influences visitor satisfaction. Visitors were asked when they first learned about the reservation system, nearly half (47%) reported learning 1 3 months ahead of their trip. Over half (58%) of respondents indicated they purchased within 48 hours of entering CM. Approximately 90% of visitors, regardless of income levels, are willing to pay at least $10 for their CM reservation. This is roughly two times the cost of the current permit of $6. There was no significant difference between first-time and repeat visitors willingness to pay. In an Importance Performance Analysis review, levels remained high on critical attributes such as a sense of safety, freedom to explore, and the amount of traffic on CM summit road. Overall, Adaptive management and consistent monitoring are needed to address current visitor transportation management techniques and maintenance of a high-quality visitor experience.

 

Submission Type: Poster

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Shelby Helwig

Shannon McCoy

Graduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: Shannon McCoy

Abstract: Confronting sexism may benefit womens psychological wellbeing in the short- or long-term after a sexist event. Preliminary evidence suggests that confrontation effectiveness, or changing a sexist perpetrators attitudes or behaviors, influences womens satisfaction and positive emotion after confronting sexism. The current experiment expanded this work and investigated if engaging in an effective versus ineffective confrontation influenced if confrontation is beneficial for psychological wellbeing. Women (N = 359) anticipated their response to blatant sexism (83.3% anticipated confronting). After responding, women were assigned to 1 of 4 conditions that manipulated change in the sexist perpetrators attitudes or behaviors. Results suggested confronters consistently anticipated increases in wellbeing [self-esteem: F(1,293) = 15.10, p < .001, 庢p2 = .05; empowerment: F(1,294) = 48.90, p < .001, 庢p2 = .14; perceived control: F(1,294) = 3.48, p = .063, 庢p2 = .01] when confrontation effectively changed the sexist decision, but not necessarily sexist attitudes. Implications for the use of interpersonal confrontation as a coping strategy after sexism and an in progress, follow up experiment investigating in-person responses in the same experimental paradigm will be discussed.

 

Submission Type: Exhibit

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Colleen Coffey

Kathleen E. Gillon

Graduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: Kathleen E. Gillon

Abstract: The purpose of this scholarly paper is to use the theoretical frameworks of Foucault (1977) and Freire (1970), in an effort to examine how paradigms of punishment and fear can be transformed to liberation through healing narrative. I argue that we must recognize the key ingredients of fear and discipline needed to deprive power also simultaneously deprive people of freedom worse than incarceration. What is stolen is dignity. To achieve truly transformative experiences while operating in spaces of fear, educators must empower students to be free under duress. Educators who occupy carceral spaces deeply rooted in punishment must recognize the existence of a constant juxtaposition: to educate another is to recognize their humanity, but to incarcerate another is to deny that same humanity. In order for prison education to be truly transformative, we must address the power over paradox and push for true reform in the carceral setting. Using genealogy and narrative, we can come to understand the contrary critical frames that we ask our students to use in the very spaces where they get punished for using them. Using critical power to truly liberate our students is to help them understand the power of their own narratives are the EXACT tools needed to dismantle the masters house.

Foucault, M. (1977). Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison. London: Allen Lane.

Freire, P. (2005). Pedagogy of the Oppressed: 30th Anniversary Edition. The Continuum International Publishing Group Inc.

 

Submission Type: Poster

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Eleanor Schuttenberg

Caroline Kelberman

Michelle Buffie

Tayah Mower

Carmen Irujo

Douglas Nangle

Graduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: Douglas Nangle

Abstract: Cyber victimization (CV), or exposure to behaviors that are perpetrated online or via technology, is prevalent among adolescents (Zhu et al., 2021). Such exposure has been linked to increased depression (Tran et al., 2021). Perceived social support (PSS) is one mechanism demonstrated to be protective against depression across the lifespan (Gari矇py et al., 2016). The present study investigated the influences of three major types of PSS (friends, significant others, and family) on the CV-depression relationship. Adolescents (N = 119) aged 13-17 completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the Cyber Peer Experiences Questionnaire-Adolescent, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Lifetime CV was positively correlated with depression symptoms (p < .001). Depression was negatively correlated with all three subscales of PSS (friends, significant others, and family p < .05). However, CV was significantly negatively correlated with only PSS of family (p < .001). A mediation analysis was performed using PROCESS: the full model accounted for 27.52% of the variance (R2 = .2752, F(2, 116) = 22.03, p < .001). More lifetime CV predicted lower levels of PSS of family and more depression, while lower levels of PSS of family predicted more depression. PSS of family had a significant indirect effect on the relationship between lifetime CV and depression (b=2.44, CI .98, 4.08). PSS of families provides one possible pathway that CV may lead to depression in adolescents. Therefore, PSS from families appears to function as a protective factor for victimized adolescents.

 

Submission Type: Poster

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Leah Savage

Amelia Couture-Bue

Undergraduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: Amelia Couture-Bue

Abstract: In light of restrictions in face-to-face interactions from the COVID-19 pandemic, Zoom, a video conferencing platform, has profoundly altered means of educational and professional communication through virtual meetings. While Zoom mimics in-person interaction, it also mirrors many of the unique affordances of highly visual social media use, such as the representation of oneself as an image on a screen and the ability to view and objectify ourselves and others. The current research examines how educational settings taking place on Zoom might be impactful on the mental processes of female students. Specifically, we asked whether certain camera setting on Zoom could enable state self-objectification, and thus deplete cognitive resources and performance within these virtual environments. A three condition, between-subjects design was used to measure female college students self-objectification, appearance comparisons, appearance satisfaction and cognitive performance. Female students (n = 191) were recruited using targeted ads on Instagram and from the 做厙腦瞳app SONA participant pool. Participants completed a pre-test survey before participating in a class-like Zoom call either A) with their camera on and with self-view, B) with their camera on but without self-view or C) with their camera off. Preliminary results indicate that participants who were instructed to participate with their camera on but without self-view (i.e., condition B) performed significantly worse on the math test than those in the other conditions, while there was no difference in cognitive performance between the other conditions. Though results trended in the expected direction, self-objectification did not differ based on condition.

 

Submission Type: Poster

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Caroline Kelberman

Eleanor M. Schuttenberg

Michelle L. Buffie

Carmen Irujo

Tayah Mower

Douglas W. Nangle

Graduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: Douglas W. Nangle

Abstract: ADHD and depression are closely linked disorders. Researchers have identified emotion regulation (ER) as a mechanism that underlies the relationship. The present study explored the mediational role of five well-established ER dimensions as potential mediators on the relationship between ADHD and depressive symptoms in emerging adults. Undergraduate students (N = 362) aged 18-24 completed the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Symptom Checklist (ASRS), and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD). The tested ER dimensions were derived from the DERS: nonacceptance of emotional responses, difficulty engaging in goal-directed behavior, impulse control difficulty, limited access to emotion regulation strategies, and lack of emotional clarity. All correlations were in the expected directions and significant (ps < .001) and the overall pattern did not differ for males and females. Five mediation models were tested using PROCESS and controlling for gender. Two of the mediation models emerged as significant. Limited access to ER strategies and ADHD symptoms accounted for 45.29% of the variance in depressive symptoms (R2 = .4529, F(3, 358) = 50.42, p < .001) and difficulty engaging in goal-directed behavior and ADHD symptoms accounted for 34.31% of the variance in depressive symptoms (R2 = .3431, F(3, 358) = 62.34, p < .001). The indirect effects of both subscales were found to be statistically significant (95%CI .16, .39 and 95%CI .17, .35 respectively). Targeting limited access to ER strategies and difficulty engaging in goal-directed behavior may be particularly useful in interventions for individuals with comorbid ADHD and depression.

 

Submission Type: Virtual Presentation

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Samuel Vaccaro

Robby Finley

Undergraduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: Robby Finley

Abstract: Philosophers and mathematicians have long been interested in identifying and characterizing the fundamental, universal concepts that form the basis of how we think about the world. These concepts constitute what some philosophers have called conceptual schemes, which are ways of organizing our experience into systematic categories that give structure to our sensory data. In this talk, I argue that the mathematical tool of Category Theory provides a characterization of conceptual schemes that depicts fundamental aspects of our ability to understand universal concepts. Further, using this framework reveals that there are aspects of these frameworks that cannot be conceptualized in a way that preserves all the explicit information. Any choice of conceptual scheme alienates some objects from their true natures by assigning them to some category and reveals the limitations of our ability to express and organize the world around us. I then apply these findings, arguing that these themes have been echoed throughout history in Buddhist and Daoist thought alluding to the fact that there is no inherent nature or universal that can capture all quantitative or conceptual qualities. From this we see a clear limit to our ability to conceptualize our experiences in a way that maintains the full expressiveness needed to capture the true nature of the world.

 

Submission Type: Virtual Presentation

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Noelle Ott

Jordan LaBouff

Undergraduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: Jordan LaBouff

Abstract: Tabletop roleplaying games are a form of in-person multiplayer gaming structured around group interaction, set rules of gameplay, strategic group decision-making, and active character roleplaying. While such games have existed in some form for thousands of years, more recent and modern versions such as Dungeons & Dragons and Call of Cthulhu have increased attention not only to its use as a form of entertainment, but as a potential extension of play and drama therapies in a clinical setting (Henrich & Worthington, 2021). Research on the use of therapeutic roleplaying with and without supervision of gameplay have come to be associated with increased understanding of self-concept and connection to community (Winn, 1959; House 1970), as well as a reduction in depression and anxiety (Burroughs, Wagner & Johnson, 1997; Wilde, 1994). However, much of previous investigation has remained in younger age groups, where play and drama therapies are more often applied, and has focused on individual development and social connections. Only recently have studies begun to study tabletop roleplaying games as a form of therapy and most have involved case studies that apply theoretical and anecdotal, rather than clinical, evidence of the games effective use as a mechanism of therapeutic treatment (Blackmon, 1994; Hughes, 1988). The current study aimed to extend tabletop roleplaying games research to a larger, more varied age group (N = 184, Average age = 19.2) through an online survey, assessing their experience with the game and reasons to participate in gameplay as well as any correlations between levels of depression, anxiety, and amount of participation in tabletop roleplaying games. Results indicated that participants generally felt that tabletop roleplaying games supported their mental health and well being, particularly in the context of roleplaying in their characters mindset. We also found that frequency of play was associated positively with symptoms of depression and anxiety, even when controlling for predictors on the Ten Item Personality Measure such as conscientiousness and emotional stability (Gosling et al., 2003). This may suggest that individuals experiencing depression or anxiety may turn to tabletop roleplaying games as a way to respond and cope with these symptoms. The implications of these results, as well as directions for further research in this burgeoning field are discussed.

 

Submission Type: Virtual Presentation

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Morgan Stosic

Mollie Ruben

Graduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: Mollie Ruben

Abstract: There is a critical need to be able to detect fatigue in others as fatigue can impact individuals on the job (e.g., by impairing speed/accuracy and decision-making/memory) and because fatigue is generally unpleasant for those experiencing it. However, recent research has shown that individuals are generally inaccurate (i.e., worse than guessing/chance) when it comes to identifying fatigue in others, suggesting a pressing need for trainings and interventions. The current research aims to address this practical problem by testing the efficacy of various training techniques in order to increase fatigue detection accuracy. Specifically, we will test two previously established emotion perception training techniques, applied, for the first time, to the domain of fatigue. The first of these trainings will employ practice and feedback, which will allow perceivers (i.e., those doing the judging) to view various targets (i.e., individuals being judged) experiencing differing levels of fatigue, and receive feedback regarding whether their judgments were correct or incorrect. We will also test an education-based intervention that teaches perceivers which nonverbal cues to pay attention to in order to make accurate fatigue judgments, and which nonverbal cues to ignore. Testing the efficacy of these two training paradigms will allow us to answer the question of whether humans can be trained to become better perceivers of others fatigue, and how we can go about achieving this objective in order to limit the effects of fatigue on costs, performance, and health. Result and implications are discussed.

 

Submission Type: Poster

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Ailin Liebler-Bendix

Shelby Helwig

Shannon McCoy

Undergraduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: Shannon McCoy

Abstract: Researchers investigating confrontations of prejudice often use coding systems to classify responses to prejudice. We similarly investigated womens responses to blatant sexism but employed three operationalizations of confrontation: (1) a categorical coding system, (2) a self-report measure, and (3) an experimental manipulation. In the first, online study, we categorized most women (83%; n = 296) as confronting sexism. Consistent with our categorical system, confronters reported significantly higher intentions to confront (M = 5.48, SD = 1.43; U = 6817.00, z = -2.88, p = .004) compared to non-confronters (M = 4.77, SD = 1.76). In a second, in-person study, we categorized almost half of women as confronters (43.3%). Confronters (M = 5.55, SD = 1.96) reported significantly greater intention to confront compared to non-confronters (M = 3.31, SD = 2.31; t(55) = 4.08, p < .001, d = 1.08). In a third study, we successfully tested a novel manipulation of womens (N = 31) confrontation behavior through an instructional set. Women in the confrontation condition called out sexism after experiencing sexism while women in the no confrontation condition did not call out the sexism. These results suggest that categorical coding systems capture relative differences in perceived intention to confront during an imagined confrontation but more accurately reflected intention to confront during an in-person experiment. Our results suggest different operationalizations of confrontation behavior, in the form of self-reported intentions and experimental manipulations, may strengthen insights learned within this field depending on the experimental methodology employed.

 

Submission Type: Virtual Presentation

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Peter O’Brien

Kathleen Bell

Undergraduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: Kathleen Bell

Abstract: Improved understanding of geographic variation in COVID-19 health outcomes strengthens public policy and related management responses. Public lands, parks, and conservation areas played a key role in supporting some communities throughout the pandemic. Yet, many questions remain about the experiences and health outcomes of recreation counties. While recreation areas provide open spaces to remain socially distant from others, they also attract visitors and involve industries that depend on interactions with the public. Land, natural resource, and tourism development managers are interested in the extent to which health outcomes varied in recreation-dependent economic regions versus others. In this research, we compared COVID-19 health outcomes for US recreation and non-recreation counties using visual, descriptive, and regression analyses. We created a novel dataset summarizing outcomes in the 3,061 counties of the US by integrating data describing COVID-19 health outcomes, demographic characteristics, and regional economic characteristics. We focused on the 20-month period between January 2020 and August 2021 to examine differences in trends across county types. Overall, we found similar trends over time in COVID-19 monthly infection rates in recreation and non-recreation counties but detected some differences between recreation and non-recreation counties depending on their metro or non-metro status. Lower case outcomes in recreation counties are driven nationally by lower cases in non-metro recreation counties. Deaths in recreation counties are lower than in non-recreation counties in both metro and non-metro areas on a per capita basis. Our exploratory research is informing regional and national discussions about the linkages between recreation and health & well-being.

 

Submission Type: Poster

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Raegan Harrington

Rebecca Schwartz-Mette

Graduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: Rebecca Schwartz-Mette

Abstract: Adolescence is a developmental period distinguished by both an increased risk for developing internalizing symptoms (Ghandour et al., 2019) and continued refinement of empathy skills developed in childhood (Allemand et al., 2015). Empathy, (i.e., ability to understand and feel what others are feeling; Davis, 1980), is typically regarded as a prosocial/protective construct. More recently, however, research has begun to argue it is not always adaptive (Bloom, 2017). Empathetic distress (i.e., experiencing a relationship partners distress and problems as ones own distress and problems; Smith & Rose, 2011) is one example of potentially costly empathic abilities, with one study documenting higher levels linking to increased anxiety symptoms (Smith, 2015). Could empathy be harmful? And what does it do to our friends? The current study replicates and extends past work by testing links of empathetic distress with anxiety and depressive symptoms in close adolescent friendships. Adolescents (N = 186) in same-gender, best friend pairs reported their anxiety and depressive symptoms and empathetic distress at three intervals over six months. Low empathetic distress in adolescents (but high empathetic distress in friends) predicted increases in adolescents depressive symptoms over the first 3 months. Adolescents depressive symptoms at 3 months were then linked with increased empathetic distress in themselves, but decreased empathetic distress in their friends at 6 months. Additionally, adolescents higher initial anxiety symptoms and lower depressive symptoms predicted increased empathetic distress after 3 months. Implications of results and future directions are discussed.

 

Submission Type: Virtual Presentation

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Katie Davis

Undergraduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor:

Nicholas Micinski

Abstract: As the effects of climate change become more severe and a new US administration tackles migration, an investigation is needed into the use of development aid and how it tackles climate displacement. This project answers questions about where development aid is used, and whether the action that is taken using the grants is productive in addressing the root causes of climate migration. I have examined grants given by the United States to countries in Latin America, and the current US administrations strategy on migration. This was done through qualitative analysis of OECD grants, policy documents, and additional sources. The culmination of the collected research is a case study on a specific grant and what contributions it brings to the discussion surrounding migration. My research will contribute to Professor Micinskis research agenda related to similar issues.

 

Submission Type: Poster

Submission Category: Social Sciences and Humanities

Author(s):

Laura Curioli

Asif Nawaz

Undergraduate Student Presentation

Faculty Mentor: Asif Nawaz

Abstract: Extant terrorism scholarship argues that terrorists seek media coverage for their attacks to communicate with supporters, the public, governments, and adversaries (Baggozzi and Koren 2017; Whiteside 2020). However, in 1970 the ratio of claimed attacks has reduced from 60% to 14% in the last 50 years (Hoffman 1997; Kearns, Conlon, and Young 2014). Similarly, according to Global Terrorism Database more than 80 percent of terrorist attacks remained unclaimed between 1970 and 2019 (START 2019). If media coverage is essential, then given the level of unclaimed attacks the science and logic behind credit claiming is confounding. What motivates certain groups to claim while others do not? This study aims to examine the relationship between counterterrorism efforts of the government, a groups propensity of claiming credit, and the ideologies of those groups. In essence we argue that groups inclination to claim attacks is significantly reduced due to harsh government counterterrorism operations and personal choice based on ideology.